Welsh Ice Cap
A high-resolution 3D thermomechanical model was used to simulate the Welsh Ice Cap independently over the last glacial cycle. The model was forced using climate curves derived from the GISP2 ice core record (see figure). After running a suite of >400 simulations, two ‘optimum’ experiments were found that best represented the available empirical evidence for glaciation of the Welsh landscape.
The first, E397, was driven by a 2-phase climate whereby temperature suppression over the glacial-maximum period was enhanced (max. ~2°C) relative to the preceding and proceeding climate:
The second, E426, is a slight modification on the experiment above, whereby temperatures were suppressed (max. 0.2ºC) prior to the glacial maximum as well. The modelled Welsh Ice Cap subsequently experiences two major advances over the glacial cycle (~30 and 23.5 ka):